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Labour Act 2003, (Act 651) defines strike as “any action by two or more workers in concert which is intended by them to restrict in anyway the service they normally provide to the employer or diminish the output of such service with a view to applying coercive pressure upon the employer. It includes; sympathy strike and those activities commonly called work-to-work, a go slow or sit down strike.”

Thus an action undertaken by workers which slows down their normal work is considered a strike action. Therefore strike does not only mean total withdrawal of services.

Strike is a tool applied by workers to press home their demands from their employers. However the Labour law requires that before applying strike as a tool, workers should have ensured all the necessary processes prescribed under the law before embarking on strike.

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Available statistics at the National Labour Commission shows that from the year 2010-2016 a number of strikes were recorded,  mainly by workers in the Public Service and though these workers may have legitimate concerns, they failed to adhere to the laid down procedures under the Law to embark on these industrial actions thus making their actions “illegal” under the Law.

For strike to be legal, the Law under Section 159 stipulates two circumstances:

The first is where the parties fail to agree to refer the dispute to voluntary arbitration; the second is where the dispute remains unresolved at the end of the arbitration process; either party intending to take strike action or institute lockout, shall then give a written notice of this to the other party and the  National Labour Commission within seven days after failure to agree, to refer the dispute to voluntary arbitration.

This means that the parties would have gone through negotiation and mediation, yet they failed to resolve the dispute and one party to the dispute does not want the matter to be referred to voluntary arbitration, or the parties are at voluntary arbitration, but the conduct of one party is stalling the process.

It is under such a circumstance that a party intending to strike or institute lockout must give a written notice to the other party and the National Labour Commission. However, what has become the norm by some workers, organizations and associations is for them to issue Press Releases or Press Statements of their intention to embark on strike. In other instances, the NLC is only copied notice of strike. Such acts contravene the provisions for embarking on strike under the Law.

Again such acts prevent the Commission from pro-actively intervening to have the issues resolved. Very often, the strike action is started before the Commission is informed. Further, the practice where workers write to state that if no action is taken within a specific period “we would advise ourselves” is not appropriate because ”advising oneself” is not a notice to the Commission. Where a party is aggrieved and intends to take action, that party should state clearly the reasons for dissatisfaction and officially report to the Commission for redress.

A notice of strike therefore must be properly served as required by the Law. It is important to note that today’s practice of industrial relations must be based on transparency, good faith and adherence to the Labour Act 2003, (Act 651).

As social partners and industrial relations practitioners let us commit ourselves to Sub-Part II of Act 651 which clearly spells out the requirements for effective dispute resolution.                            


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ADR Daily is a specialized news portal with a focus on providing authentic news, information and research analysis on Appropriate Dispute Resolution (ADR), Human Resource Management (HRM) and Industrial Relations Management (IRM) in Ghana and beyond. This platform serves as an information resource base for the progress of the ADR, HRM and IRM industries, and seeks to promote professionalism in ADR practice by supporting a network of ADR professionals within and across nations and continents. ADR Daily keenly encourages the mass adoption of ADR mechanisms, particularly negotiation, mediation and arbitration for the resolution of disputes in all spheres, through the publication of industry news and information, as well as by deploying innovative awareness creation engagements.